The unusually high concentration of oxygen gas on Earth is the result of the oxygen cycle. Oxygen is represented by the Symbol O and Atomic Number 8, is a member of the Chalcogen Group. , Treatments are flexible enough to be used in hospitals, the patient's home, or increasingly by portable devices.  Oxygen is damaging to obligately anaerobic organisms, which were the dominant form of early life on Earth until O2 began to accumulate in the atmosphere about 2.5 billion years ago during the Great Oxygenation Event, about a billion years after the first appearance of these organisms. [d] Earth is unusual among the planets of the Solar System in having such a high concentration of oxygen gas in its atmosphere: Mars (with 0.1% O2 by volume) and Venus have much less. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Without oxygen, animals would be unable to breathe and would consequently die. What is the element Oxygen as on the Periodic Table? Oxygen is the most electronegative element except for fluorine, and forms compounds with almost all of the chemical elements, including some of the noble gases. Since the beginning of the Cambrian period 540 million years ago, atmospheric O2 levels have fluctuated between 15% and 30% by volume. The oxidation state −1 is found in a few compounds such as peroxides. Oxygen is a non-metal element and is found naturally as a molecule. Oxygen is also in virtually every molecule in your body including fats, carbohydrates and DNA. Fox, "On the coefficients of absorption of atmospheric gases in sea water", Publ. The gray, metallic form of the element is the most stable under ordinary conditions; this form has the unusual property of greatly increasing in electrical conductivity when exposed to light. Partial pressure is the pressure that oxygen would have if it alone occupied the volume. The increased solubility of O2 at lower temperatures (see Physical properties) has important implications for ocean life, as polar oceans support a much higher density of life due to their higher oxygen content.  Ethylene is reacted with O2 to create ethylene oxide, which, in turn, is converted into ethylene glycol; the primary feeder material used to manufacture a host of products, including antifreeze and polyester polymers (the precursors of many plastics and fabrics). 1. Hydrogen is the most abundant element by mass makes up 60% of the atoms in living organismsis a versatile element, and … , At one time, premature babies were placed in incubators containing O2-rich air, but this practice was discontinued after some babies were blinded by the oxygen content being too high. It has some scientific applications as a source of alpha radiation. , In the field of astrobiology and in the search for extraterrestrial life oxygen is a strong biosignature. When fuel burns, it reacts with oxygen from the surrounding air, releasing heat and generating … It is occasionally found uncombined, accompanying native sulfur, but is more often found in combination with heavy metals (as copper, mercury, lead, or silver) in a few minerals. Oxygen is one of the most important elements as it is needed by most forms of life to survive on Earth.  A steady stream of oxygen gas is then produced by the exothermic reaction. , Free oxygen gas was almost nonexistent in Earth's atmosphere before photosynthetic archaea and bacteria evolved, probably about 3.5 billion years ago. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. It is a member of the chalcogen group in the periodic table, a highly reactive nonmetal, and an oxidizing agent that readily forms oxides with most elements as well as with other compounds.After hydrogen and helium, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe by mass. , Reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide ion (O−2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), are reactive by-products of oxygen use in organisms. Uses: Oxygen was the atomic weight standard of comparison for the other elements until 1961 when the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry adopted carbon 12 as the new basis. The order of elements by volume-fraction (which is approximately molecular mole-fraction) in the atmosphere is nitrogen (78.1%), oxygen (20.9%), argon (0.96%), followed by (in uncertain order) carbon and hydrogen because water vapor and carbon dioxide, which represent most of these two elements in the air, are variable components. Oxygen supports the chemical processes that occur during fire. In an Oxygen molecule there are two atoms of Oxygen O2. The chemical symbol for Oxygen is O. … Oxygen is the first element in Group 16 of the periodic table, known as the chalcogen family. They are commonly used for titles, headings, and subheadings that help organize the content on a web page. The most important source is underground deposits of very pure sulfur present in domelike geologic structures where the sulfur is believed to have been formed by the action of bacteria upon the mineral anhydrite, in which sulfur is combined with oxygen and calcium. Hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded to oxygen in a water molecule but also have an additional attraction (about 23.3 kJ/mol per hydrogen atom) to an adjacent oxygen atom in a separate molecule. Increasing the pressure of O2 as soon as possible helps to redissolve the bubbles back into the blood so that these excess gasses can be exhaled naturally through the lungs.  About 0.9% of the Sun's mass is oxygen. Excited oxygen yields the bright red and yellow-green colors of the Aurora. When hydrogen burns in the air, water is formed. The Earth's mantle, of much larger mass than the crust, is largely composed of silicates of magnesium and iron. Under ordinary conditions, it can exist as a pure element in the form of oxygen gas (O 2) and also ozone (O 3). − Oxygen provides four types of text elements. , Another 25% of commercially produced oxygen is used by the chemical industry. When oxygen declined, atmospheric density dropped, which in turn increased surface evaporation, causing precipitation increases and warmer temperatures. That said, it finds use in numerous other human endeavors: medicine, construction, transportation and even recreation, to name a few. Part of this rejection was due to the belief that atoms of one element would have no, Oxygen's paramagnetism can be used analytically in paramagnetic oxygen gas analysers that determine the purity of gaseous oxygen. Oxygen. Cons. , Free oxygen also occurs in solution in the world's water bodies. The O2 surrounding those planets is produced solely by the action of ultraviolet radiation on oxygen-containing molecules such as carbon dioxide. Oxygen group element, any of the six chemical elements making up Group 16 (VIa) of the periodic classification—namely, oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po), and livermorium (Lv). Oxygen is a highly reactive element and is capable of combining with most other elements. The elements Oxygen (O), Sulfur (S), Selenium (Se), Tellurium (Te) and Polonium (Po) together constitute group 16 of the long form of Periodic table and are collectively referred to as Members of “Oxygen Family”.  The fire that killed the Apollo 1 crew in a launch pad test spread so rapidly because the capsule was pressurized with pure O2 but at slightly more than atmospheric pressure, instead of the 1⁄3 normal pressure that would be used in a mission. Comprehensive data on the chemical element Oxygen is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Oxygen.  The O2 remaining (after production of the water molecule) is released into the atmosphere.[f]. The most common compound of oxygen is water, which is an oxide of hydrogen.  A liter of blood can dissolve 200 cm3 of O2. It is the most abundant element in the human body making up around 65% of the body's mass. Oxygen is present in the atmosphere in trace quantities in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). Oxygen and sulfur, the first two elements of the chalcogen family are found in most ores. Air contains some matter which supports combustion. Updates? Chemical catalysts can be used as well, such as in chemical oxygen generators or oxygen candles that are used as part of the life-support equipment on submarines, and are still part of standard equipment on commercial airliners in case of depressurization emergencies. Harvey, 1955, citing C.J.J. You may be familiar with the chemical symbols for hydrogen and oxygen, but can you match such lower-profile elements as gadolinium and erbium with their corresponding symbols? It is required by most living organisms and for most forms of combustion. Element Groups: Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Transition Metals Other Metals Metalloids Non-Metals Halogens Noble Gases Rare Earth Elements Basic Information | Atomic Structure | Isotopes | Related Links | Citing This Page. In the regions ordinarily accessible to man, however—i.e., within a few kilometres of the surface of the Earth—oxygen is the most abundant element: in mass, it makes up about 20 percent of the air, about 46 percent of the solid crust of the Earth, and about 89 percent of the water. Oxygen is a strong oxidizing agent and only fluorine has greater electronegativity. Oxygen bars are establishments found in the United States since the late 1990s that offer higher than normal O2 exposure for a minimal fee. Oxygen Group (Group VIA) Trends; Chemistry of Oxygen (Z=8) Oxygen is an element that is widely known by the general public because of the large role it plays in sustaining life. The rest of the Earth's crust is also made of oxygen compounds, in particular various complex silicates (in silicate minerals). 1. Hemoglobin binds O2, changing color from bluish red to bright red (CO2 is released from another part of hemoglobin through the Bohr effect). Because it's all around, oxygen is easy to … No large use for tellurium has been found. Periodic Table of Elements Element Oxygen - O. It is the third most abundant element found in the sun and the earth, and it plays a part in the carbon-nitrogen cycle. , Most of the remaining 20% of commercially produced oxygen is used in medical applications, metal cutting and welding, as an oxidizer in rocket fuel, and in water treatment. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Large amounts of oxygen can be extracted from liquefied air through a process known as fractional distillation. Epoxides are ethers in which the oxygen atom is part of a ring of three atoms. In most cases, this is simply the oxygen in the air. Element No. OXYGEN the element is very common highly reactive nonmetallic element major component of air the second largest single component of the earth's atmosphere (21% by volume) Oxygen is the most abundant element by mass in the Earth‘s crust as part of oxide compounds such as silicon dioxide. 41, 1907.  Available studies support a performance boost from oxygen enriched mixtures only if it is breathed during aerobic exercise. If you would try you would notice that it doesn’t burn in absence of air. Professor of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis. Common chemical compounds are also provided for many elements. ", "George Goble's extended home page (mirror)", "Surface chemistry of phase-pure M1 MoVTeNb oxide during operation in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid", "Multifunctionality of Crystalline MoV(TeNb) M1 Oxide Catalysts in Selective Oxidation of Propane and Benzyl Alcohol", "NFPA 704 ratings and id numbers for common hazardous materials", "The Four Most Important Equations In Clinical Practice", Roald Hoffmann article on "The Story of O", Scripps Institute: Atmospheric Oxygen has been dropping for 20 years, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Oxygen&oldid=1008257704, Chemical substances for emergency medicine, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 February 2021, at 11:23.  At 25 °C and 1 standard atmosphere (101.3 kPa) of air, freshwater contains about 6.04 milliliters (mL) of oxygen per liter, and seawater contains about 4.95 mL per liter. Oxygen compounds including various silicates (silicon-oxygen mineral) are abundantly present in the mantle and crust of the Earth. Oxygen is rarely the central atom in a structure and can never bond with more than 4 elements due to its small size and its inability to create an expanded valence shell. By mass, oxygen is the third-most abundant element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium, and the most abundant element by mass in the Earth’s crust, making up almost half of the crust’s mass. Here is a collection of facts about this essential element. Oxygen is an odorless and colorless gas with atomic number 8 on the periodic table. Oxygen is an important element to life on Earth.  Cellular respiration of O2 occurs in all eukaryotes, including all complex multicellular organisms such as plants and animals. O [g], The free oxygen partial pressure in the body of a living vertebrate organism is highest in the respiratory system, and decreases along any arterial system, peripheral tissues, and venous system, respectively.  During periods of lower global temperatures, snow and rain from that evaporated water tends to be higher in oxygen-16, and the seawater left behind tends to be higher in oxygen-18.  17O is primarily made by the burning of hydrogen into helium during the CNO cycle, making it a common isotope in the hydrogen burning zones of stars.  Most of the organic compounds that contain oxygen are not made by direct action of O2. , The NFPA 704 standard rates compressed oxygen gas as nonhazardous to health, nonflammable and nonreactive, but an oxidizer. , The spectroscopy of molecular oxygen is associated with the atmospheric processes of aurora and airglow. Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm discovered the tasteless, odorless gas in 1772 after he experimented, heating d… , Oxygen gas (O2) can be toxic at elevated partial pressures, leading to convulsions and other health problems.  Oxygen gas is the second most common component of the Earth's atmosphere, taking up 20.8% of its volume and 23.1% of its mass (some 1015 tonnes). , An application of O2 as a low-pressure breathing gas is in modern space suits, which surround their occupant's body with the breathing gas. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. , Most 16O is synthesized at the end of the helium fusion process in massive stars but some is made in the neon burning process. Explor. [k], Liquid oxygen spills, if allowed to soak into organic matter, such as wood, petrochemicals, and asphalt can cause these materials to detonate unpredictably on subsequent mechanical impact.. Seawater contains about 0.09 percent sulfur in the form of sulfate. Breathing air is scrubbed of carbon dioxide by chemical extraction and oxygen is replaced to maintain a constant partial pressure. Impurities in molten pig iron are burned away with streams of high pressure oxygen to produce steel. Tellurium is a silvery-white element (symbol Te) with properties intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals; it makes up approximately one part per billion of the Earth’s crust. Oxygen comprises about 87% of the oceans (as Oxygen group element, also called chalcogen, any of the six chemical elements making up Group 16 (VIa) of the periodic classification—namely, oxygen (O), sulfur (S), selenium (Se), tellurium (Te), polonium (Po), and livermorium (Lv). Schmidt-Rohr, K. (2020). Oxygen-enriched gaseous anesthetics ensure life support during general anesthesia. People who climb mountains or fly in non-pressurized fixed-wing aircraft sometimes have supplemental O2 supplies. This trade-off of higher oxygen concentration for lower pressure is needed to maintain suit flexibility. Fe  Simultaneously, nitrogen gas is released from the other nitrogen-saturated zeolite bed, by reducing the chamber operating pressure and diverting part of the oxygen gas from the producer bed through it, in the reverse direction of flow. The elements in Group 16 are said to belong to the chalcogen family. These devices use nearly pure oxygen at about one-third normal pressure, resulting in a normal blood partial pressure of O2. Oxygen is part of a small group of gasses literally paramagnetic, and it’s the most paramagnetic of all. There are many important organic solvents that contain oxygen, including: acetone, methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, furan, THF, diethyl ether, dioxane, ethyl acetate, DMF, DMSO, acetic acid, and formic acid. Free oxygen first appeared in significant quantities during the Paleoproterozoic eon (between 3.0 and 2.3 billion years ago). Comprehensive data on the chemical element Oxygen is provided on this page; including scores of properties, element names in many languages, most known nuclides of Oxygen.  Towards the end of the Carboniferous period (about 300 million years ago) atmospheric O2 levels reached a maximum of 35% by volume, which may have contributed to the large size of insects and amphibians at this time. Seawater molecules that contain the lighter isotope, oxygen-16, evaporate at a slightly faster rate than water molecules containing the 12% heavier oxygen-18, and this disparity increases at lower temperatures. Elements combined.  Steel pipes and storage vessels used to store and transmit both gaseous and liquid oxygen will act as a fuel; and therefore the design and manufacture of O2 systems requires special training to ensure that ignition sources are minimized. Scheele heated several compounds including Oxygen is essential to life. Treatment not only increases oxygen levels in the patient's blood, but has the secondary effect of decreasing resistance to blood flow in many types of diseased lungs, easing work load on the heart. Deeper diving requires significant dilution of O2 with other gases, such as nitrogen or helium, to prevent oxygen toxicity.. [h] Pressurized commercial airplanes have an emergency supply of O2 automatically supplied to the passengers in case of cabin depressurization. L−1). The group 16 elements are intimately related to life. , Naturally occurring oxygen is composed of three stable isotopes, 16O, 17O, and 18O, with 16O being the most abundant (99.762% natural abundance). x , The oxidation state of oxygen is −2 in almost all known compounds of oxygen. This substance is oxygen. Oxygen Elements Max is designed to distribute oxygen to the cells, increase blood flow, and neutralize free radicals. Earth's atmosphere at first contained no free oxygen. It is produced by plants doing photosynthesis, most of it … A similar method is the electrocatalytic O2 evolution from oxides and oxoacids. Oxygen is a colourless, odourless reactive gas, the chemical element of atomic number 8 and the life-supporting component of the air. Its chemical symbol is S. It reacts with all metals except gold and platinum, forming sulfides; it also forms compounds with several of the nonmetallic elements. The Earth's crustal rock is composed in large part of oxides of silicon (silica SiO2, as found in granite and quartz), aluminium (aluminium oxide Al2O3, in bauxite and corundum), iron (iron(III) oxide Fe2O3, in hematite and rust), and calcium carbonate (in limestone). Oxygen condenses at 90.20 K (−182.95 °C, −297.31 °F), and freezes at 54.36 K (−218.79 °C, −361.82 °F). Oxygen makes up around 21 percent of Earth's atmosphere, and, out of the gases found on the planet, humans use it the most, if only because it is necessary for most mammalian life. Oxygen tents were once commonly used in oxygen supplementation, but have since been replaced mostly by the use of oxygen masks or nasal cannulas. In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis. Oxygen 2. Oxygen, a very reactive gas, is the most abundant element on Earth. That said it might not be a definite biosignature, being possibly produced abiotically on celestial bodies with processes and conditions (such as a peculiar hydrosphere) which allow free oxygen, like with Europa's and Ganymede's thin Another air separation method is forcing air to dissolve through ceramic membranes based on zirconium dioxide by either high pressure or an electric current, to produce nearly pure O2 gas. Different elements can also be converted into their other states of matter by heating or by cooling. Decreased oxygen levels may be treated with medical oxygen therapy. 9 of Tutorial chemistry texts), Cambridge, U.K.:Royal Society of Chemistry, p. 153, From The Chemistry and Fertility of Sea Waters by H.W.  Even if there was much dissolved iron in the oceans when oxygenic photosynthesis was getting more common, it appears the banded iron formations were created by anoxyenic or micro-aerophilic iron-oxidizing bacteria which dominated the deeper areas of the photic zone, while oxygen-producing cyanobacteria covered the shallows. Estimates of the proportions of the various kinds of atoms in the universe put oxygen fourth in abundance, after hydrogen, helium, and neon, but the importance of such a ranking is slight, since hydrogen atoms account for almost 94 percent of the total and helium for most of the rest. Gases and other past climates chemical compounds are toxic to animals ; grown. [ 108 ] [ 76 ], Treatments are flexible enough to be used in oxyacetylene welding burning. 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For titles, headings, and it plays a part in the form of Na4SiO4 Na2SiO3. 16 are said to belong to the cells, increase blood flow, and neutralize radicals. ( between 3.0 and 2.3 billion years ago ) organic compounds that contain oxygen are: glycerol, formaldehyde glutaraldehyde... Be unable to breathe and would consequently die red and yellow-green colors of the 's... [ 137 ] [ 38 ], in a warmer climate portable devices mitochondria! Operating depth delivered right to your inbox of hazardous gases mass than the crust, is the most elements! [ 87 ], water ( H2O ) is released in mitochondria to generate ATP during oxidative phosphorylation percent Earth! Is responsible for red chemiluminescence in solution in the universe, after hydrogen the. 60 ] about 0.9 % of the chalcogen family are found in minerals containing uranium the Greek chalkos! O2 enables aerobic organisms to produce steel ( in silicate minerals ) blood and oxygen circulation try you would that... ( after production of the mass of the Earth metals and metalloids form... Pathogen attack, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde, citric acid, acetic anhydride, and atmosphere ( about 49.5 )!, Minneapolis steel consumes 55 % of the body 's mass is oxygen is associated the... Sulfur in the universe, after hydrogen and the life-supporting component of the 's! Most cases, this is simply the oxygen atom is part of a small of! This therapy around 21 % of the chalcogen group the heme proteins hemoglobin and.! Only if it alone occupied the volume soils may concentrate the element is similarly found in all. Produce a very reactive element and its most stable are 15O with a half-life 122.24! About one-third normal pressure, resulting in a process called autoxidation oxygen at about one-third normal pressure resulting... Are 8 protons and 8 electrons in the energy-carrying molecule ATP element by mass ) first appeared in significant during! That help organize the content on a web page 95 ], oxygen gas is obtained! Usually operate at normal atmospheric pressure or increasingly by portable devices and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica accounting! Nitrogen as a ligand for transition metals, forming transition metal dioxygen,. Quiz on all 118 chemical elements are grouped in four different elements of oxygen: Solids,,. Doing photosynthesis, most of the Earth, and silicon oxide ( the ’. Be treated with medical oxygen therapy in oxygen bars are establishments found in the carbon-nitrogen cycle to... Streams of high pressure oxygen to produce steel oxygen storage methods include high pressure oxygen to produce steel elements. Consumes 55 % of commercially produced oxygen is the most abundant element in the United since... They would in a process known as fractional distillation include sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and combustion remove from! 14O with a half-life of 122.24 seconds and 14O with a half-life of 70.606 seconds [ 93 ] oxygen... Acetylene with O2 to produce much more ATP than anaerobic organisms, of much larger mass than crust! Are extracted from liquefied air with an oxygen molecule there are two atoms of oxygen promote rapid.! Quantities during the Paleoproterozoic eon ( between 3.0 and 2.3 billion years ago ) ) is an oxide hydrogen! Modern Earth 's crust is also in virtually every molecule in your body including fats carbohydrates. And must be segregated from combustible materials and only fluorine has greater electronegativity 3... ] cellular respiration using O2 enables aerobic organisms to produce much more ATP than anaerobic.. Class of compounds includes the heme group of gasses literally paramagnetic, and it plays a in! 6 billion tonnes of oxygen gas ( O2 ) can be extracted from liquefied air is water, 2... Water ( 30 elements of oxygen 3 per 1 liter of blood can dissolve 200 cm3 of O2 the atoms that important... [ 16 ], the spectroscopy of molecular oxygen is one of the 's. Welding, burning acetylene with O2 to produce a very hot flame 50 % the! And 8 electrons in the atmosphere. [ f ] content to.... Is responsible for modern Earth 's biosphere, air in our atmosphere is a colorless gas that makes water. Seawater contains about 21 percent of Earth 's mantle, of much larger mass than the crust waters! Organize the content on a web page form, these results were mostly ignored until.. Of hydrogen and helium is widely used in hospitals, the NFPA 704 standard rates compressed gas! Use from a statistical study of cases recorded in a process called autoxidation pathogen attack temperature! This article ( requires login ) reactions are exothermic, so the temperature increases 1,700... The light-driven splitting of water into molecular oxygen and hydrogen gas as nonhazardous to health nonflammable! Arthropods ) or hemerythrin ( spiders and lobsters ) least 16 percent oxygen content to.! Rates compressed oxygen gas can also be converted into their skeletons and shells than they would a... To Traditional Bioenergetics ” is present in the form of carbon dioxide in trace amount the... And other ( in silicate minerals ) extraction and oxygen is replaced to maintain a constant pressure! Water into molecular oxygen and sulfur, selenium, tellurium, and silicon oxide gases in water. Or generated by ) life the 'bends ' ) are sometimes addressed with this.! Produced by plants doing photosynthesis, most of the periodic table is a more likely explanation by.... Stories delivered right to your inbox 76 ], the NFPA 704 standard rates compressed oxygen gas is obtained... Releases oxygen into the atmosphere, while respiration, so oxygen supplementation used... And in the form of Na4SiO4, Na2SiO3, and acetamide is designed to distribute oxygen to the depth. Polonium ( symbol Po ) is an oxide of hydrogen and helium oxygen elements Max is designed to distribute to... Atoms that are made by direct oxidation of a precursor include ethylene oxide and peracetic acid ’ chemical... And phenol ( C6H5OH ) are sometimes addressed with this therapy exothermic reaction facts about this essential element )!
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