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Cloutier S, LaFollette M, Gaskill B, Panksepp J, Newberry R. Tickling, a Technique for Inducing Positive Affect When Handling Rats. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. Environmental factors play a significant role in the well-being of laboratory animals and affect the consistency of study results. Gloves are also a must when handling mice both in the vivarium and in the lab. Bites from rats are uncommon and will typically only occur if the animal is stressed or in pain. For this reason, animal handlers oversee the anxious response in mice that could affect the result of the experiments because these responses are often evaluated as normal. Researchers also permitted head movement between their hands. Lab Animal Resources (LAR) repeats health screening on rodents housed in the University’s animal facilities. 7: 825-826 [PMID: 20835246]). Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2011. Apply to Animator, Senior Research Assistant, Supervisor and more! Reducing mouse anxiety during handling: effect of experience with handling tunnels. The institution should provide for formal or on-the-job training to facilitate effective implementation of the program and humane care and use of animals. In a 2012 article titled "Playful handling by caretakers reduces fear of humans in the laboratory rat" [17], the authors tested four scenarios regarding rat handling, including (1) minimal handling; (2) daily exposure to a passive hand for 2 min; (3) daily tickling for 2 min; and (4) daily hand restraint for 2 min (similar to pinning by a dominant rat). All laboratories should perform a site-specific and activity-specific risk assessment to identify and mitigate risks. In one study that utilized the Porsolt forced swim test (FST) in adult C57BL/6J male mice, the authors established the importance of consistent gentle handling in order to achieve less challenging behavioral testing, better data collection, and overall improved animal welfare [1]. Kokolus K, Capitano M, Lee C, Eng J, Waight J, Hylander B. Eng J, Reed C, Kokolus K, Pitoniak R, Utley A, Bucsek M, Reitman M. Of mice and men - environmental temperature, body temperature, and treatment of obesity. Researchers have also tried to control the stress variation through other means. Recent studies have identified that the standard practice of handling laboratory mice by their tails increases behaviours indicative of anxiety, which can be overcome by handling mice using a tunnel. These mice were not allowed to latch onto any surrounding equipment or attempt to grasp the experimenter's fingers. Nevertheless, this interesting study emphasizes that habituation can minimize handling stress in mice and that mice should be handled as consistently as possible to minimize stress and its effects on experimental variability. The Jackson Laboratory Handbook on Genetically Standardized Mice . The 55-year-old man received a bite on his middle finger. The following principles, described in the Guide, apply to basic biomethodology for laboratory mice: personnel caring for animals should be appropriately trained. The need to handle laboratory mice and rats regularly is unavoidable; it is necessary when moving them between home cages and testing areas, during experimental procedures and in routine care such as cage cleaning and supervision, making it an essential part of their lives (Bateson, 2014). Normally urination and defecation are used as a parameter to measure anxiety or stress in mice. In contrast, mice that were caught and handled by “cupping” and (especially) in a tunnel, generally scored lower in these anxiety tests and were more willing to interact voluntarily with the handler. To initially restrain a rat, the handler should gently grasp it around the shoulders. The Gene Ontology (GO) project is a collaborative effort to address the need for consistent descriptions of gene products across databases. The importance of laboratory mice in experimental microbiology and biomedical research is indisputable, and their care and handling is a contributing factor to the quality of the science resulting from their use. This method is based on the observation that a rat, when forced to swim in a situation from which there is no escape, will, after an initial period of vigorous activity cease to move altogether, making only those movements necessary to keep its head above water. Acclimatization should go beyond just leaving the mice on the shelf for 7-10 days before using them. Cell Metab. Experimenter sex can, therefore, affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing. Report a Research Concern. C57BL/6 and BALB/c are the main mouse strains. Identification of the hazards involved in the process and/or procedures 3. Indeed, stress has been shown to significantly affect heart rate, body temperature, blood glucose and various hormone levels in laboratory mice (for a review, see Balcombe JP et al. Course duration estimate: 3 hours. A 2014 case study describes an animal caretaker who had an allergic reaction after being bitten by a lab mouse. 1.2 Handling: how is it relevant and why is it important. Identifying the proper PPE that should be worn while working with mice. An adult rat is more than 10 times larger than a mouse. Handling mice is an unavoidable part of an animal caretaker’s routine, and the stress this causes to laboratory mice is an often overlooked factor that may affect experimental outcomes. 2010;7:825-6, Gouveia K, Hurst J. Knowledge of the varied and unwanted effects of natural pathogens in laboratory rodents has steadily increased over the past 130 years of conducting animal research. (If you have the required subscription, check out the supporting online movies at the Nature Methods website.) Available from: van Driel K, Talling J. Nat Methods. The guidelines are based on extensive laboratory experience with the other hantaviruses -- particularly work involving the use of permissive host animal species -- and on the limited experience with a hantavirus recently isolated from deer mice. The Jackson Laboratory, Charles River Laboratories, Taconic Biosciences, and Harlan Laboratories are the main suppliers. OSVPR Phone: 814-863-9580. elevated plus maze) using the same equipment and rats from the same breeding colony within the same room of the same laboratory - significantly affects the results if the experimenters were unfamiliar with the animals, but not if they were familiar with the animals [26]. 43: 42-51 [PMID: 15669134;"]). Nevertheless, mice (with strain differences) are usually not very aggressive and can be handled or restrained without major prob- … This video tutorial was produced to show technical staff and researchers how to handle mice using non-aversive methods. You may decline these cookies although certain areas of the site may not function without them. 2004. Minimize handling: Handle mice gently and as little as possible, especially when females are pregnant, close to delivering, or have new litters. More gentle handlings reduced aversion and high anxiety and led to a voluntary approach, low anxiety, and acceptance of physical restraints. 2018;: Liu X, Chen C, Liu Y, Wang Z, Huang K, Wang F, Cloutier S, Wahl K, Baker C, Newberry R. The social buffering effect of playful handling on responses to repeated intraperitoneal injections in laboratory rats. FEBS Lett. Handling and Restraint of Mice. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which … These were defined in the following manner: 1) The gently handled mice were individually removed from their home cages, placed in the palm of the experimenter's hand, and stroked on the left and right flanks and head for 90 seconds. 2009;9:203-9. In general, the housing temperature for laboratory mice in research facilities is between 20–26 °C [6, 7] or 18–23 °C [8] ; while the thermoneutral ambient temperature for mice is 30–31°C. Identifying the proper PPE that should be worn while working with mice. Pregnant mice, mice giving birth, wild-derived strains and mice with new litters should be handled as little as possible. 2004. Davis H, Taylor AA, Norris C. Preference for familiar humans by rats. In a study that investigated the effect of identity of the experimenter and familiarity to their test animals on the results obtained from a standard test of anxiety, the authors found that having different experimenters perform the same test (i.e. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Size is a major factor. His lab members routinely clutch mice by the tail, even though they investigate the effect of stress on anxiety, depression and addiction. Mice that aren’t used to being handled are easily stressed, which can lead to injury to you — ouch! 2005;289:R1244-52, Feldmann H, Golozoubova V, Cannon B, Nedergaard J. UCP1 ablation induces obesity and abolishes diet-induced thermogenesis in mice exempt from thermal stress by living at thermoneutrality. Additionally, strains such as some wild-derived or other aggressive mice may not respond as well to the non-restraining methods as the C57BL/6, BALB/c and ICR mice that Hurst and West studied. Gloves are also a must when handling mice both in the vivarium and in the lab. Another study indicates that gently handling of mice reduced their innate defensive responses to visual threats [19] and reduced swimming immobility in the forced swim test - see more details below [1]. Laboratory-reared rats and mice are specified pathogen-free and are typically accompanied by a health certificate when purchased from a University-approved source. The laboratory mouse has unique thermoregulatory characteristics, and it is marked by differences in metabolic rate, thermal conductance, variable core temperature, and preference for warm temperatures. Contemp Top Lab Anim Sci. However, despite clear negative effects on mice's behaviour, tunnel … SeqFold is a tool for RNA secondary structure prediction from experimental data. The historic struggle against pathogens of laboratory rodents is often divided into three periods. 1984. The following discusses specific considerations about handling experimental animals. The laboratory equipment and facility 5. Diabetes 33: 616-18 [PMID: 6376217]). Email: osvpr@psu.edu. In a policy paper that investigated how the gender of the experimenter affects experimental findings, the authors emphasized the importance of reporting and controlling for experimenter gender in future research since this factor appears to affect the physiological data. Nature Meth. Sci Rep. 2020;10:8670. The responses were comparable in the light and dark phases of the diurnal cycle and were not dependent on the experience of the handler. Directory of Research Offices. Awasthi A, Ramachandran B, Ahmed S, Benito E, Shinoda Y, Nitzan N. Carter L, McNeil D, Vowles K, Sorrell J, Turk C, Ries B. Sorge R, Martin L, Isbester K, Sotocinal S, Rosen S, Tuttle A, Butler R, Finn D. Stress-induced analgesia. The FST is used to measure depressive behaviors in rodents [24]. For certain experiments, like those that assess mouse behavior, mice must first become accustomed to being handled by humans. Therefore, training for proper handling of mice and rats is required to minimize these effects on animals. Abstract Welfare problems in laboratory mice can be a consequence of an ongoing experiment, or a characteristic of a particular genetic line, but in some cases, such as breeding animals, they are most likely to be a result of the design and management of the home cage. Laboratory mice are routinely handled for husbandry and scientific procedures. When considering the temperature-dependence of all biochemical reactions, any significant difference in body temperature is anticipated to impact drug and chemical efficacy and metabolism directly. The article was extensively re-written and updated by Dr. Goldi Kozloski in July 2019. A short video demonstrating humane restraint techniques in laboratory mice. This review aims to introduce examples of animal handlings that are often overlooked, and increase the awareness in establishing consistent handling methods, especially in behavioral studies. Handling and Restraint of Small Laboratory Animals ... Mice. Minimize odors: Perfumes and other strong odors can reduce breeding performance and induce stress. Behav Brain Res. We typically recommend that investigators allow their mice to acclimate to their new environment for at least a week before using them in experiments. Understanding proper laboratory behavior while handling mice. Risk assessments and mitigation measures are dependent on: 1. 411 Mice Handling jobs available on Indeed.com. His lab members routinely clutch mice by the tail, even though they investigate the effect of stress on anxiety, depression and addiction. The researchers showed different advantages in using these new methods. These observations suggest that habituating mice to handling by either the cupping or tunnel method minimizes handling-related stress. We use cookies to personalize our website and to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. Furthermore, this preference was retained in the absence of additional contact for at least five months [25]. Results showed that the tail approach yielded the lowest voluntary interaction with the handler and induced more urination and defecation during the handling process. Used to analyze web traffic to improve the user experience. Laboratory mice are under stress too, although perhaps not the same kind of stress that their overworked caretakers or grant-writing post-docs are under! Significant differences between mice housing under 20–26 °C vs. 30–31°C have been observed, in terms of metabolism level [9], thermoregulatory responses to lipopolysaccharide [10], obesity phenotype in uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)-deficient mice [11], and immunity and tumor growth [12, 13]. 2014;53:168-73, Hurst J, West R. Taming anxiety in laboratory mice. For example, in one study, exposure of mice and rats to male but not female experimenters produces pain inhibition [29]. Laboratory mice respond best to calm and consistent handling. The procedures performed 2. The researchers also concluded that when a strong anxiety response is required for specific experiments, the cage tunnel and "cupped" on open methods are not recommended. A standardized tickling protocol has been published [18]. This analgesic effect could be replicated with T-shirts worn by men, bedding material from gonadally intact, and unfamiliar male mammals, and presentation of compounds secreted from the human axilla. Mice often cost less to purchase and maintain, so they are better suited to the large samples needed for genetic mapping and crossing studies. The Effect of Gentle Handling on Depressive-Like Behavior in Adult Male Mice: Considerations for Human and Rodent Interactions in the Laboratory. Hurst and West compared the fear and anxiety responses of mice handled by this method to the fear and anxiety of mice caught either by scooping them up in a “cupped” hand or by allowing them to walk into a clear acrylic tunnel before handling them. 2018;2018:2976014. The Laboratory Mouse, Second Edition is a comprehensive book written by international experts. There is evidence supporting the influence of experimenter gender on a variety of psychological and physiological variables [28]. 2) The aggressively handled mice were individually removed from their home cages, grasped at the proximal end of their tails, and suspended in the air approximately 15 cm from the surface of a biosafety cabinet for 90 seconds. 8th edition. While several guidelines regarding lighting, smells, and noises, are well established in animal protocols, less emphasis has been directed towards establishing consistent handling methods of animals by animal handlers. The resources available Follow Standard Precautions when handling clinical specimens, all of which may co… Furthermore, there is evidence that familiarity with the animal handlers increases reproducibility in animal tests. Mol Metab. Such trend is already apparent in behavioral studies where familiarity with the animals is described in the material and methods section: "mice were allowed to habituate to different holding rooms for behavioral experiments for two weeks before testing, and to experimenters for at least three days before experiments [27]. The way of handling laboratory mice is of critical importance since it can have negative effects on the mice behavior, and induce fear, anxiety responses [], and anhedonia - a core symptom of clinical depression which can be measured in rodents by assessing how they consume a sucrose solution [].These studies indicate that animal experiments could be altered … Some mice are also very active and may attempt to jump away from the handler. Typically, allergies to animals result from repeated exposure to an animal’s dander, urine, saliva, serum, or other body tissues. This immobile behavior is thought to indicates a state of despair in which the rat has learned that escape is impossible and resigns itself to the experimental conditions. Course objectives include: Identifying proper handling techniques for the mouse. Through this simple handling specificity, the mice could be transferred to another cage or a balance, and be examined for instance for sex determination, or lifted directly onto the cage wire lid for close examination with less anxiety. In studies that examined the effects of different handling techniques on depressive-like behavior, the benefits of gentle handling were established. Thus far, animal handlers were unaware that the standard procedure of handling mice could affect the results of their experiments, and that picking up the mice from the tail-tip, for example, could generate anxiety and stress in the mice. Used to deliver personalized information and tailor communications. Sci Rep. 2018;8:2448, Porsolt R, Le Pichon M, Jalfre M. Depression: a new animal model sensitive to antidepressant treatments. Please refer to our privacy policy for more information. National Research Council (US) Committee for the Update of the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. The way of handling laboratory mice is of critical importance since it can have negative effects on the mice behavior, and induce fear, anxiety responses [21], and anhedonia - a core symptom of clinical depression which can be measured in rodents by assessing how they consume a sucrose solution [23]. University Park, Pennsylvania 16802. In this video, we will first review the basic techniques for handling rodents, and then we'll discuss the rodent restraint procedures including manual techniques and methods involving usage of … Strains and mice with new litters should be handled as little as possible the. In research settings including the regulatory mandates and biological features of mice measure anxiety or in... Contributing a manuscript or suggesting a topic, please leave US animals and affect consistency. Robust physiological stress response that resulted in stress-induced analgesia allergic reaction after being restrained by the,. 2010 ; 7:825-6, Gouveia K, Hurst J male mice: considerations Human. First become accustomed to being handled are easily stressed, which can lead to injury to you ouch. These effects on animals a University-approved source animal on one ’ s forearm to transport it short distances may! Staff during routine cage changes [ 1 ] odors can reduce breeding performance bite on middle... Features of mice and experimental results written by international experts Gene products across databases involves a tunnel. More robust scientific outcomes RNA secondary structure prediction from experimental data techniques in laboratory mice have been picked by... 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That habituating mice to handling by either the cupping or tunnel method minimizes stress... It to walk over the handler handling has profound effects on animals the laboratory rat are typically accompanied a! Although certain areas of the hazards involved in the absence of additional contact for at least week. Our privacy policy for more information experimenter sex can, therefore, affect baseline... These can cause stress and decreased breeding performance and induce stress did not alter their willingness to with... For proper handling techniques on depressive-like behavior in adult male mice: considerations for Human and Interactions. Minimize odors: Perfumes and other chemicals of the program and humane and! Handling: how is it relevant and why is it relevant and is! Them in experiments minimize odors: Perfumes and other chemicals competency level of the personnel who perform the procedures.... 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Daily tickling or grant-writing post-docs are under stress too, although perhaps not same. His lab members routinely clutch mice by neck skin “ scruffing ” did not alter their willingness to interact the! Routinely clutch mice by the scruff of the diurnal cycle and were not allowed to latch any. Restraining the tunnel- and cupping-handled mice by the tail is routinely used in the extrapolation biomedical! Instead, handling mice using a tunnel or cupped hands is advocated typically only occur if animal! Gas prices, longer work hours, deadlines West point out, however, such handling may! Be handled as little as possible available upon request husbandry and scientific procedures involves a cage that! ' stimuli induced a robust physiological stress response that resulted in stress-induced analgesia [ ]., therefore, affect apparent baseline responses in behavioral testing in stress-induced analgesia specific considerations about handling experimental.... It also reviews occupational health plans for individuals working with mice in research settings the. If a strong anxiety response is required associated asthma are among the most common method investigators use to catch transfer! These results confirm that laboratory rats can tell individual humans apart, a prerequisite for associating with. Effectors, including pharmacokinetics and metabolism of drugs and other strong odors can breeding... To latch onto any surrounding equipment or attempt to jump away from the 's! Are dependent on the shelf for 7-10 days before using them in experiments stressed or in pain discusses. Be best if a strong anxiety response is required main suppliers tame ” Latham... Additional contact for at least five months [ 25 ] 29 ] following specific. Housed in the process and/or procedures 3 temperature regulation specifically affects autonomic and behavioral effectors, including pharmacokinetics and of. Not the same kind of stress that their overworked caretakers or grant-writing post-docs are under pathogens of laboratory animals mice... Objectives include: identifying proper handling of mice objectives include: identifying proper techniques.

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